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Explore (NY). 2015 Nov-Dec;11(6):468-74. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2015.08.005. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

The Chiropractic Care of Infants with Breastfeeding Difficulties.

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International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063; Department of Pediatric Research, Life Chiropractic College West, Hayward, CA. Electronic address:
Private Practice of Chiropractic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Private Practice of Chiropractic, Makati City, Philippines.



Chiropractors have long advocated on the benefits of breastfeeding and given the realized and potential role of chiropractors in the care of infants with breastfeeding difficulties, we performed this review of the literature on the subject to inform clinical practice.


For this article, we searched Pubmed [1966-2013], Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System (MANTIS) [1964-2013] and Index to Chiropractic Literature [1984-2013] for the relevant literature. The search terms utilized "breastfeeding", "breast feeding", "breastfeeding difficulties", "breastfeeding difficulty", "TMJ dysfunction", "temporomandibular joint", "birth trauma" and "infants", in the appropriate Boolean combinations. We also examined non-peer-reviewed articles as revealed by Index to Chiropractic Literature and secondary analysis of references. Inclusion criteria for review included breastfeeding difficulties regardless of peer-review and written in the English language.


A total of 24 articles met our inclusion criteria. These consisted of 8 case reports, 2 case series, and 3 cohort studies. We were also able to identify 6 manuscripts (5 case reports and a case series) that involved breastfeeding difficulties as a secondary complaint. Our findings reveal a theoretical and clinical framework based on the detection of spinal and extraspinal subluxations involving the cervico-cranio-mandibular complex and assessment of the infant while breastfeeding.


Chiropractors care of infants with breastfeeding difficulties by addressing spinal and extraspinal subluxations involving the cervico-cranio-mandibular complex.


breastfeeding difficulties; chiropractic; spinal adjustments

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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