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Oncotarget. 2015 Oct 20;6(32):32468-83. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.5957.

Piperine metabolically regulates peritoneal resident macrophages to potentiate their functions against bacterial infection.

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Department of Immunobiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
Department of Fetal Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.


Pepper, a daily-used seasoning for promoting appetite, is widely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases. Piperine is the major alkaloid in pepper and possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism for linking metabolic and medicinal activities of piperine remains unknown. Here we report that piperine robustly boosts mTORC1 activity by recruiting more system L1 amino acid transporter (SLC7A5/SLC3A2) to the cell membrane, thus promoting amino acid metabolism. Piperine-induced increase of mTORC1 activity in resident peritoneal macrophages (pMΦs) is correlated with enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF-α upon LPS stimulation. Such an enhancement of cytokine production could be abrogated by inhibitors of the mTOR signaling pathway, indicating mTOR's action in this process. Moreover, piperine treatment protected resident pMΦs from bacterium-induced apoptosis and disappearance, and increased their bacterial phagocytic ability. Consequently, piperine administration conferred mice resistance against bacterial infection and even sepsis. Our data highlight that piperine has the capacity to metabolically reprogram peritoneal resident macrophages to fortify their innate functions against bacterial infection.


Immune response; Immunity; Immunology and Microbiology Section; SLC7A5/SLC3A2; bacterial infection; mTORC1; peritoneal macrophages; piperine

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