Format

Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Genomics. 2015 Oct 5;16:741. doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1904-7.

Genome analyses of the sunflower pathogen Plasmopara halstedii provide insights into effector evolution in downy mildews and Phytophthora.

Author information

1
Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Georg-Voigt-Str. 14-16, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. rahul.sharma@senckenberg.de.
2
Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60323, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. rahul.sharma@senckenberg.de.
3
Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. rahul.sharma@senckenberg.de.
4
Center for Integrative Fungal Research (IPF), Georg-Voigt-Str. 14-16, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. rahul.sharma@senckenberg.de.
5
Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Georg-Voigt-Str. 14-16, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. Xiaojuan.Xia@senckenberg.de.
6
Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60323, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. Xiaojuan.Xia@senckenberg.de.
7
Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. Xiaojuan.Xia@senckenberg.de.
8
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK. lcanomo@ncsu.edu.
9
Present address: Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University Raleigh, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA. lcanomo@ncsu.edu.
10
Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1LR, UK. edouard.evangelisti@slcu.cam.ac.uk.
11
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne´ Weg 10, Cologne, 50829, Germany. kemen@mpipz.mpg.de.
12
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. howard.judelson@ucr.edu.
13
Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, NL-3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands. stan_oome@yahoo.com.
14
Biosciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK. C.M.Sambles@exeter.ac.uk.
15
Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. johan.vandenhoogen@wur.nl.
16
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 11, 78371, Olomouc, Czech Republic. miloslav.kitner@gmail.com.
17
Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, NL-3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands. J.Klein@uu.nl.
18
Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. harold.meijer@wur.nl.
19
University of Hohenheim, Institute of Botany 210, D-70593, Stuttgart, Germany. spring@uni-hohenheim.de.
20
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK. Joe.Win@sainsbury-laboratory.ac.uk.
21
University of Hohenheim, Institute of Botany 210, D-70593, Stuttgart, Germany. zipper@uni-hohenheim.de.
22
Merck-Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften and Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. h.bode@bio.uni-frankfurt.de.
23
Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. francine.govers@wur.nl.
24
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK. sophien.kamoun@sainsbury-laboratory.ac.uk.
25
Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1LR, UK. Sebastian.Schornack@slcu.cam.ac.uk.
26
Biosciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK. D.J.Studholme@exeter.ac.uk.
27
Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, NL-3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands. g.vandenackerveken@uu.nl.
28
Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Georg-Voigt-Str. 14-16, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. marco.thines@senckenberg.de.
29
Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60323, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. marco.thines@senckenberg.de.
30
Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. marco.thines@senckenberg.de.
31
Center for Integrative Fungal Research (IPF), Georg-Voigt-Str. 14-16, 60325, Frankfurt (Main), Germany. marco.thines@senckenberg.de.
32
Integrative Fungal Research (IPF), Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. marco.thines@senckenberg.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Downy mildews are the most speciose group of oomycetes and affect crops of great economic importance. So far, there is only a single deeply-sequenced downy mildew genome available, from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Further genomic resources for downy mildews are required to study their evolution, including pathogenicity effector proteins, such as RxLR effectors. Plasmopara halstedii is a devastating pathogen of sunflower and a potential pathosystem model to study downy mildews, as several Avr-genes and R-genes have been predicted and unlike Arabidopsis downy mildew, large quantities of almost contamination-free material can be obtained easily.

RESULTS:

Here a high-quality draft genome of Plasmopara halstedii is reported and analysed with respect to various aspects, including genome organisation, secondary metabolism, effector proteins and comparative genomics with other sequenced oomycetes. Interestingly, the present analyses revealed further variation of the RxLR motif, suggesting an important role of the conservation of the dEER-motif. Orthology analyses revealed the conservation of 28 RxLR-like core effectors among Phytophthora species. Only six putative RxLR-like effectors were shared by the two sequenced downy mildews, highlighting the fast and largely independent evolution of two of the three major downy mildew lineages. This is seemingly supported by phylogenomic results, in which downy mildews did not appear to be monophyletic.

CONCLUSIONS:

The genome resource will be useful for developing markers for monitoring the pathogen population and might provide the basis for new approaches to fight Phytophthora and downy mildew pathogens by targeting core pathogenicity effectors.

PMID:
26438312
PMCID:
PMC4594904
DOI:
10.1186/s12864-015-1904-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center