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Mol Cancer Ther. 2015 Dec;14(12):2818-30. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0587. Epub 2015 Oct 5.

PARP Inhibitors Sensitize Ewing Sarcoma Cells to Temozolomide-Induced Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway.

Author information

1
Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.
2
Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany. German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany. German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
3
Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany. German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany. German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. simone.fulda@kgu.de.

Abstract

Ewing sarcoma has recently been reported to be sensitive to poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Searching for synergistic drug combinations, we tested several PARP inhibitors (talazoparib, niraparib, olaparib, veliparib) together with chemotherapeutics. Here, we report that PARP inhibitors synergize with temozolomide (TMZ) or SN-38 to induce apoptosis and also somewhat enhance the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, etoposide, or ifosfamide, whereas actinomycin D and vincristine show little synergism. Furthermore, triple therapy of olaparib, TMZ, and SN-38 is significantly more effective compared with double or monotherapy. Mechanistic studies revealed that the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis plays a critical role in mediating the synergy of PARP inhibition and TMZ. We show that subsequent to DNA damage-imposed checkpoint activation and G2 cell-cycle arrest, olaparib/TMZ cotreatment causes downregulation of the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1, followed by activation of the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), activation of caspases, and caspase-dependent cell death. Overexpression of a nondegradable MCL-1 mutant or BCL-2, knockdown of NOXA or BAX and BAK, or the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) all significantly reduce olaparib/TMZ-mediated apoptosis. These findings emphasize the role of PARP inhibitors for chemosensitization of Ewing sarcoma with important implications for further (pre)clinical studies.

PMID:
26438158
DOI:
10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0587
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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