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Nutrients. 2015 Oct 1;7(10):8366-75. doi: 10.3390/nu7105398.

Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Author information

1
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China. zhangmengxi_suda@hotmail.com.
2
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China. panguotao_suda@hotmail.com.
3
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China. justxiangwang@hotmail.com.
4
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China. bingyanli@suda.edu.cn.
5
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China. qinliqiang@suda.edu.cn.
6
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China. zhangzengli@suda.edu.cn.

Abstract

The results investigating the relationship between vitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are inconsistent. Thus, we focused on evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with GDM by conducting a meta-analysis of observed studies. A systematic literature search was conducted via PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies before August 2015. The meta-analysis of 20 studies including 9209 participants showed that women with vitamin D deficiency experienced a significantly increased risk for developing GDM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.33, 1.75) with a little heterogeneity (I² = 16.20%, p = 0.252). A noteworthy decrease of 4.93 nmol/L (95% CI, -6.73, -3.14) in serum 25(OH)D was demonstrated in the participants with GDM, and moderate heterogeneity was observed (I² = 61.40%, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis with study design showed that there were obvious heterogeneities in nested case-control studies (I² > 52.5%, p < 0.07). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In summary, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates a consistent association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of GDM. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to elicit the clear effect of vitamin D supplementation on prevention of GDM.

KEYWORDS:

gestational diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis; pregnancy; vitamin D deficiency

PMID:
26437429
PMCID:
PMC4632418
DOI:
10.3390/nu7105398
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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