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J Int Oral Health. 2015 Sep;7(9):108-13.

Comparison of Frictional Forces Generated by a New Ceramic Bracket with the Conventional Brackets using Unconventional and Conventional Ligation System and the Self-ligating Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

Author information

Professor, Department of Orthodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Postgraduate Student, Department of Orthodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Reader, Department of Orthodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics, MR Ambedkar Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



Fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy is associated with friction between the bracket - wire - ligature interfaces during the sliding mechanics. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance. The present study was done to analyze and compare the frictional forces generated by a new ceramic (Clarity Advanced) bracket with the conventional, (metal and ceramic) brackets using unconventional and conventional ligation system, and the self-ligating (metal and ceramic) brackets in the dry condition.


The various bracket wire ligation combinations were tested in dry condition. The brackets used were of 0.022″ × 0.028″ nominal slot dimension of MBT prescription: Stainless steel (SS) self-ligating bracket (SLB) of (SmartClip), SS Conventional bracket (CB) (Victory series), Ceramic SLB (Clarity SL), Conventional Ceramic bracket with metal slot (Clarity Bracket), Clarity Advanced Ceramic Brackets (Clarity(™) ADVANCED, 3M Unitek). These brackets were used with two types of elastomeric ligatures: Conventional Elastomeric Ligatures (CEL) (Clear medium mini modules) and Unconventional Elastomeric Ligatures (UEL) (Clear medium slide ligatures, Leone orthodontic products). The aligning and the retraction wires were used, i.e., 0.014″ nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.019″ × 0.025″ SS wires, respectively. A universal strength testing machine was used to measure the friction produced between the different bracket, archwires, and ligation combination. This was done with the use of a custom-made jig being in position.


Mean, standard deviation, and range were computed for the frictional values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. The frictional resistance observed in the new Clarity Advanced bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature was almost similar with the Clarity metal slot bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature. When using the UEL, the Clarity Advanced bracket produced lesser friction than the conventional metal bracket; but not less than the ceramic metal slot bracket. Ceramic SLB produced lesser friction when compared with the Clarity Advanced bracket with UEL, but the metal SLB produced the least friction among all the groups and subgroups.


The present study concluded that the SS SLB produced least friction among all groups. Using the archwire and ligation method, frictional forces observed in the Clarity Advanced bracket and the conventional ceramic with metal slot bracket were almost similar; but the least resistance was determined in SS CB using both the ligation (CEL and UEL) system.


Clarity Advanced brackets; conventional elastomeric ligatures; friction; self-ligating brackets; sliding mechanics; unconventional elastomeric ligatures


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