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Dis Markers. 2015;2015:864370. doi: 10.1155/2015/864370. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection.

Author information

1
School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Centre for Translational Inflammation Research (CTIR), University of Birmingham Laboratories, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK.

Abstract

First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection.

PMID:
26435569
PMCID:
PMC4578836
DOI:
10.1155/2015/864370
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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