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J Affect Disord. 2016 Jan 1;189:110-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.015. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, its treatment with medication and the probability of developing a depressive disorder: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

Author information

1
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
2
Genome and Systems Biology Degree Program, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Community Medicine Research Center, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
5
Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Community Medicine Research Center, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan.
6
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
7
Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.
8
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: wangliangjen@gmail.com.

Erratum in

  • J Affect Disord. 2016 Jan 15;190:122.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study is to determine the risk of developing depressive disorders by evaluating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison to controls that do not have ADHD, as well as to analyze whether the medications used to treat ADHD, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX), influence the risk of depression.

METHODS:

A group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=71,080) and age- and gender-matching controls (n=71,080) were chosen from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database during the period of January 2000 to December 2011. Both the patients and controls were monitored through December 31, 2011. We also explore the potential influence of the length of MPH and ATX treatment on developing depressive disorders.

RESULTS:

The ADHD patients showed a significantly increased probability of developing a depressive disorder when compared to the control group (ADHD: 5.3% vs.

CONTROLS:

0.7%; aHR, 7.16, 99% CI: 6.28-8.16). Regarding treatment with MPH, a longer MPH use demonstrates significant protective effects against developing a depressive disorder (aOR, 0.91, 99%CI: 0.88-0.94). However, the duration of ATX treatment could not be significantly correlated with the probability of developing a depressive disorder.

LIMITATIONS:

The database employed in this study lacks of comprehensive clinical information for the patients with ADHD. Potential moderating factors between ADHD and depression were not considered in-depth in this study.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this study reveal that youths diagnosed with ADHD have a greater risk of developing depressive disorders. Long-term treatment with MPH correlated to the reduced probability of developing a depressive disorder among youths with ADHD.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Comorbidity; Epidemiology; Mood disorders; Stimulant

PMID:
26433758
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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