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Trends Immunol. 2015 Oct;36(10):625-636. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2015.08.005.

Homeostasis of Microglia in the Adult Brain: Review of Novel Microglia Depletion Systems.

Author information

1
Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Straße 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: waisman@uni-mainz.de.
2
Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), 138648 Singapore, Singapore.
3
Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
4
Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Straße 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Abstract

Microglia are brain macrophages that emerge from early erythro-myeloid precursors in the embryonic yolk sac and migrate to the brain mesenchyme before the blood brain barrier is formed. They seed the brain, and proliferate until they have formed a grid-like distribution in the central nervous system that is maintained throughout lifespan. The mechanisms through which these embryonic-derived cells contribute to microglia homoeostasis at steady state and upon inflammation are still not entirely clear. Here we review recent studies that provided insight into the contribution of embryonically-derived microglia and of adult 'microglia-like' cells derived from monocytes during inflammation. We examine different microglia depletion models, and discuss the origin of their rapid repopulation after depletion and outline important areas of future research.

KEYWORDS:

depletion systems; development; erythromyeloid precursors; macrophages; maintenance; microglia; repopulation; yolk sac

PMID:
26431940
DOI:
10.1016/j.it.2015.08.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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