Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Apr;137(4):1091-1102.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.08.013. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Petrolatum: Barrier repair and antimicrobial responses underlying this "inert" moisturizer.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.
2
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY; Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.
3
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY; Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
4
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY; Center for Clinical and Translational Science, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.
5
Department of Dermatology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa.
6
Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
7
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY; Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Genetics and Genomics Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
8
Department of Dermatology, Tel-Hashomer Hospital, Tel Aviv, Israel.
9
Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY; Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address: eguttman@rockefeller.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Petrolatum is a common moisturizer often used in the prevention of skin infections after ambulatory surgeries and as a maintenance therapy of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the molecular responses induced by petrolatum in the skin have never been assessed.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to define the cutaneous molecular and structural effects induced by petrolatum.

METHODS:

Thirty-six healthy subjects and 13 patients with moderate AD (mean SCORAD score, 39) were studied by using RT-PCR, gene arrays, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence performed on control skin, petrolatum-occluded skin, and skin occluded with a Finn chamber only.

RESULTS:

Significant upregulations of antimicrobial peptides (S100A8/fold change [FCH], 13.04; S100A9/FCH, 11.28; CCL20/FCH, 8.36; PI3 [elafin]/FCH, 15.40; lipocalin 2/FCH, 6.94, human β-defensin 2 [DEFB4A]/FCH, 4.96; P < .001 for all) and innate immune genes (IL6, IL8, and IL1B; P < .01) were observed in petrolatum-occluded skin compared with expression in both control and occluded-only skin. Application of petrolatum also induced expression of key barrier differentiation markers (filaggrin and loricrin), increased stratum corneum thickness, and significantly reduced T-cell infiltrates in the setting of "normal-appearing" or nonlesional AD skin, which is known to harbor barrier and immune defects.

CONCLUSIONS:

Petrolatum robustly modulates antimicrobials and epidermal differentiation barrier measures. These data shed light on the beneficial molecular responses of petrolatum in barrier-defective states, such as AD and postoperative wound care.

KEYWORDS:

Petrolatum; antimicrobial peptides; atopic dermatitis; barrier; innate immunity; moisturizer; occlusion; patch tests; skin surgeries

PMID:
26431582
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaci.2015.08.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center