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Compr Physiol. 2015 Sep 20;5(4):1751-74. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c140078.

Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells.

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Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.


The liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) forms the fenestrated wall of the hepatic sinusoid and functions as a control post regulating and surveying the trafficking of molecules and cells between the liver parenchyma and the blood. The cell acts as a scavenger cell responsible for removal of potential dangerous macromolecules from blood, and is increasingly acknowledged as an important player in liver immunity. This review provides an update of the major functions of the LSEC, including its role in plasma ultrafiltration and regulation of the hepatic microcirculation, scavenger functions, immune functions, and role in liver aging, as well as issues that are either undercommunicated or confusingly dealt with in the literature. These include metabolic functions, including energy metabolic interplay between the LSEC and the hepatocyte, and adequate ways of identifying and distinguishing the cells.

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