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Sci Rep. 2015 Sep 30;5:14139. doi: 10.1038/srep14139.

Gossypium barbadense genome sequence provides insight into the evolution of extra-long staple fiber and specialized metabolites.

Author information

1
Esquel Group, 25/F Eastern Cenrtal Plaza, 3 Yin Hing Road, Shau Kei Wan, Hongkong, China.
2
National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, National Plant Gene Research Center, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.
3
Shanghai-Ministry of Science and Technology Key Laboratory of Health and Disease Genomics, Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, Shanghai 201203, China.
4
Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
6
The Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 214123, China.
7
Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology and Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.
8
Max Planck Independent Research Group on Population Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Max Planck Society (CAS-MPG) Partner Institute for Computational Biology (PICB), Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

Abstract

Of the two cultivated species of allopolyploid cotton, Gossypium barbadense produces extra-long fibers for the production of superior textiles. We sequenced its genome (AD)2 and performed a comparative analysis. We identified three bursts of retrotransposons from 20 million years ago (Mya) and a genome-wide uneven pseudogenization peak at 11-20 Mya, which likely contributed to genomic divergences. Among the 2,483 genes preferentially expressed in fiber, a cell elongation regulator, PRE1, is strikingly At biased and fiber specific, echoing the A-genome origin of spinnable fiber. The expansion of the PRE members implies a genetic factor that underlies fiber elongation. Mature cotton fiber consists of nearly pure cellulose. G. barbadense and G. hirsutum contain 29 and 30 cellulose synthase (CesA) genes, respectively; whereas most of these genes (>25) are expressed in fiber, genes for secondary cell wall biosynthesis exhibited a delayed and higher degree of up-regulation in G. barbadense compared with G. hirsutum, conferring an extended elongation stage and highly active secondary wall deposition during extra-long fiber development. The rapid diversification of sesquiterpene synthase genes in the gossypol pathway exemplifies the chemical diversity of lineage-specific secondary metabolites. The G. barbadense genome advances our understanding of allopolyploidy, which will help improve cotton fiber quality.

PMID:
26420475
PMCID:
PMC4588572
DOI:
10.1038/srep14139
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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