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J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017 Feb;124(Suppl 1):55-67. doi: 10.1007/s00702-015-1465-6. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Driving and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, The Netherlands. a.b.m.fuermaier@rug.nl.
2
Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, The Netherlands.
3
Traffic and Environmental Psychology Group, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, SRH Clinic Karlsbad-Langensteinbach, Karlsbad-Langensteinbach, Germany.
5
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
6
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Abstract

Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various impairments of cognitive, emotional and social functioning, which can have considerable consequences for many areas of daily living. One of those areas is driving a vehicle. Driving is an important activity of everyday life and requires an efficient interplay between multiple cognitive, perceptual, and motor skills. In the present study, a selective review of the literature on driving-related difficulties associated with ADHD is performed, seeking to answer whether individuals with ADHD show increased levels of unsafe driving behaviours, which cognitive (dys)functions of individuals with ADHD are related to driving difficulty, and whether pharmacological treatment significantly improves the driving behaviour of individuals with ADHD. The available research provides convincing evidence that individuals with ADHD have different and more adverse driving outcomes than individuals without the condition. However, it appears that not all individuals with ADHD are affected uniformly. Despite various cognitive functions being related with driving difficulties, these functions do not appear helpful in detecting high risk drivers with ADHD, nor in predicting driving outcomes in individuals with ADHD, since impairments in these functions are defining criteria for the diagnoses of ADHD (e.g., inattention and impulsivity). Pharmacological treatment of ADHD, in particular stimulant drug treatment, appears to be beneficial to the driving difficulties experienced by individuals with ADHD. However, additional research is needed, in particular further studies that address the numerous methodological weaknesses of many of the previous studies.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Accidents; Adulthood; Driving; Mobility; Speeding; Traffic

PMID:
26419597
PMCID:
PMC5281661
DOI:
10.1007/s00702-015-1465-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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