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Eur J Nutr. 2016 Dec;55(8):2459-2468. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Food intake and inflammation in European children: the IDEFICS study.

Author information

1
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain. esthergg@unizar.es.
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. esthergg@unizar.es.
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Ministry of Science and Innovation, Madrid, Spain.
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
5
Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
6
Department of Epidemiological Methods and Etiologic Research, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
7
Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Institute of Statistics, University Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
8
Department of Public Health, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
9
Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
10
Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Department of Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
11
Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Mediterranean Neurological Institute NEUROMED, Pozzilli, Italy.
12
Department of Paediatrics, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Pecs, Hungary.
13
Research and Education Institute of Child Health REF, Strovolos, Cyprus.
14
National Institute for Health Development, Tervise Arengu Instituut, Tallinn, Estonia.
15
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain.
16
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This cross-sectional study assesses the relationship between consumption frequencies of food items and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in European children.

METHODS:

Out of the baseline sample (N = 16.228) of the IDEFICS study, 6.403 children (1.315 boys aged 2 to <6, 1.908 boys aged 6 to <10, 1.204 girls aged 2 to <6 and 1.976 girls aged 6 to <10 years) had hs-CRP measured and the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire filled, including a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression adjusted for body mass index z-score, education of the mother, breast-feeding and self-reported hours of physical activity in a sport club per week was conducted.

RESULTS:

Mean frequency intake of raw vegetable was lower in boys (p = 0.022 in young and p = 0.020 in old) and older girls (p = 0.026) with high hs-CRP concentration, while in younger girls (p = 0.008) the same occurred with the cooked vegetables. The probability of having higher hs-CRP concentration was significantly associated with having low consumption frequency of vegetables (p = 0.004 in older boys, raw vegetables; and p = 0.0032 in younger girls, cooked vegetables). Also, honey/jam intake decreased the probability of having higher concentration of hs-CRP, whereas soft drinks with sugar, mayonnaise and cereals milled increased this probability.

CONCLUSIONS:

Out of all food items associated with hs-CRP, frequency intake of vegetables presented more associations across all the analysis. Findings suggest that a high-frequency intake of vegetables is inversely related to an inflammatory status in children. More studies are needed to assess the association between diet and inflammation.

KEYWORDS:

Children; European; Food intake; IDEFICS; Inflammation

PMID:
26419585
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-015-1054-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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