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Biomed Opt Express. 2015 Aug 13;6(9):3352-61. doi: 10.1364/BOE.6.003352. eCollection 2015 Sep 1.

Periscope for noninvasive two-photon imaging of murine retina in vivo.

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Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland.
Department of Pharmacology, Cleveland Center for Membrane and Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
Department of Medical Devices, Polgenix, Inc., Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.


Two-photon microscopy allows visualization of subcellular structures in the living animal retina. In previously reported experiments it was necessary to apply a contact lens to each subject. Extending this technology to larger animals would require fitting a custom contact lens to each animal and cumbersome placement of the living animal head on microscope stage. Here we demonstrate a new device, periscope, for coupling light energy into mouse eye and capturing emitted fluorescence. Using this periscope we obtained images of the RPE and their subcellular organelles, retinosomes, with larger field of view than previously reported. This periscope provides an interface with a commercial microscope, does not require contact lens and its design could be modified to image retina in larger animals.


(170.0110) Imaging systems; (170.4460) Ophthalmic optics and devices; (170.5755) Retina scanning; (180.4315) Nonlinear microscopy; (330.7327) Visual optics, ophthalmic instrumentation

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