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EXCLI J. 2014 Oct 1;13:1131-44. eCollection 2014.

Immune mediated liver failure.

Author information

1
Department and Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Abstract

Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

KEYWORDS:

adaptive immunity; cytokines; humoral immunity; immune; innate immunity; liver failure

PMID:
26417328
PMCID:
PMC4464508

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