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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015 Nov;62(11):2553-67. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2015.2481482. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Real-Time Neuroimaging and Cognitive Monitoring Using Wearable Dry EEG.



We present and evaluate a wearable high-density dry-electrode EEG system and an open-source software framework for online neuroimaging and state classification.


The system integrates a 64-channel dry EEG form factor with wireless data streaming for online analysis. A real-time software framework is applied, including adaptive artifact rejection, cortical source localization, multivariate effective connectivity inference, data visualization, and cognitive state classification from connectivity features using a constrained logistic regression approach (ProxConn). We evaluate the system identification methods on simulated 64-channel EEG data. Then, we evaluate system performance, using ProxConn and a benchmark ERP method, in classifying response errors in nine subjects using the dry EEG system.


Simulations yielded high accuracy (AUC = 0.97 ± 0.021) for real-time cortical connectivity estimation. Response error classification using cortical effective connectivity [short-time direct-directed transfer function (sdDTF)] was significantly above chance with similar performance (AUC) for cLORETA (0.74 ±0.09) and LCMV (0.72 ±0.08) source localization. Cortical ERP-based classification was equivalent to ProxConn for cLORETA (0.74 ±0.16) but significantly better for LCMV (0.82 ±0.12) .


We demonstrated the feasibility for real-time cortical connectivity analysis and cognitive state classification from high-density wearable dry EEG.


This paper is the first validated application of these methods to 64-channel dry EEG. This study addresses a need for robust real-time measurement and interpretation of complex brain activity in the dynamic environment of the wearable setting. Such advances can have broad impact in research, medicine, and brain-computer interfaces. The pipelines are made freely available in the open-source SIFT and BCILAB toolboxes.

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