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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Nov 10;23(14):1144-70. doi: 10.1089/ars.2015.6317. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress.

Author information

1
1 Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University , Maastricht, the Netherlands .
2
2 University of Exeter Medical School , Exeter, United Kingdom .
3
3 LabOS, Rudjer Boskovic Institute , Zagreb, Croatia .
4
4 Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University , Nashville, Tennessee.
5
5 Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University , Nashville, Tennessee.
6
6 Vascular Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute , Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia .
7
7 School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales , Sydney, New South Wales, Australia .
8
8 Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University , Stip, Macedonia .
9
9 Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED) , ISCIII, Madrid, Spain .
10
10 Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas "Alberto Sols" UAM-CSIC , Madrid, Spain .
11
11 Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPaz) , Madrid, Spain .
12
12 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Madrid , Madrid, Spain .
13
13 Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE) , Nuthetal, Germany .
14
14 Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen, Denmark .
15
15 Bispebjerg-Frederiksberg Hospital , Copenhagen, Denmark .
16
16 Brighton and Sussex Medical School , Brighton, United Kingdom .

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE:

Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids.

RECENT ADVANCES:

An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance.

CRITICAL ISSUES:

The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others. The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker.

PMID:
26415143
PMCID:
PMC4657513
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2015.6317
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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