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Clin Kidney J. 2015 Oct;8(5):615-22. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfv064. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Lymphatic disorders after renal transplantation: new insights for an old complication.

Author information

1
Renal Transplantation Center 'A. Vercellone', Division of Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation, Department of Medical Sciences , Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital and University of Torino , Torino , Italy.
2
Division of Urology , Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital , Torino , Italy.

Abstract

In renal transplanted patients, lymphoceles and lymphorrhea are well-known lymphatic complications. Surgical damage of the lymphatics of the graft during the procurement and of the lymphatic around the iliac vessels of the recipients has been associated with development of lymphatic complications. However, lymphatic complications may be related to medical factors such as diabetes, obesity, blood coagulation abnormalities, anticoagulation prophylaxis, high dose of diuretics, delay in graft function and immunosuppressive drugs. Consistently, immunosuppression regimens based on the use of mTOR inhibitors, especially in association with steroids and immediately after transplantation, has been associated with a high risk to develop lymphocele or lymphorrhea. In addition, several studies have demonstrated the association between rejection episodes and lymphatic complications. However, before the discovery of reliable markers of lymphatic vessels, the pathogenic mechanisms underlining the development of lymphatic complications during rejection and the influence of mTOR inhibitors remained not fully understood. The recent findings on the lymphatic systems of either native or transplanted kidneys together with the advances achieved on lymphangiogenesis shared some lights on the pathogenesis of lymphatic complications after renal transplantation. In this review, we describe the surgical and medical causes of lymphatic complications focusing on the rejection and immunosuppressive drugs as causes of lymphatic complications.

KEYWORDS:

kidney transplantation; lymphocele; lymphorrhea; mTOR inhibitors; rejection

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