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Clin Kidney J. 2015 Oct;8(5):580-9. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfv057. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

Optimizing haemodialysate composition.

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Nephrology and Dialysis Department , 'Alessandro Manzoni' Hospital , Lecco , Italy.


Survival and quality of life of dialysis patients are strictly dependent on the quality of the haemodialysis (HD) treatment. In this respect, dialysate composition, including water purity, plays a crucial role. A major aim of HD is to normalize predialysis plasma electrolyte and mineral concentrations, while minimizing wide swings in the patient's intradialytic plasma concentrations. Adequate sodium (Na) and water removal is critical for preventing intra- and interdialytic hypotension and pulmonary edema. Avoiding both hyper- and hypokalaemia prevents life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Optimal calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) dialysate concentrations may protect the cardiovascular system and the bones, preventing extraskeletal calcifications, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and adynamic bone disease. Adequate bicarbonate concentration [HCO3 (-)] maintains a stable pH in the body fluids for appropriate protein and membrane functioning and also protects the bones. An adequate dialysate glucose concentration prevents severe hyperglycaemia and life-threating hypoglycaemia, which can lead to severe cardiovascular complications and a worsening of diabetic comorbidities.


chronic kidney disease; chronic renal insufficiency; haemodiafiltration; haemodialysis; secondary hyperparathyroidism

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