Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 15;61Suppl 3:S179-87. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ581.

Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children: An Update.

Author information

Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne Department of Paediatrics and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Australia International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
Henry M. Jackson Foundation.
Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.
Médicins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France.
Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, United Kingdom Vaccinology Theme, MRC Unit, The Gambia.
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston.
Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity) and the Sydney Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity Institute and The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa.


Consensus case definitions for childhood tuberculosis have been proposed by an international expert panel, aiming to standardize the reporting of cases in research focusing on the diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. These definitions are intended for tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation studies of symptomatic children with clinical suspicion of intrathoracic tuberculosis, and were not intended to predefine inclusion criteria into such studies. Feedback from researchers suggested that further clarification was required and that these case definitions could be further improved. Particular concerns were the perceived complexity and overlap of some case definitions, as well as the potential exclusion of children with acute onset of symptoms or less severe disease. The updated case definitions proposed here incorporate a number of key changes that aim to reduce complexity and improve research performance, while maintaining the original focus on symptomatic children suspected of having intrathoracic tuberculosis. The changes proposed should enhance harmonized classification for intrathoracic tuberculosis disease in children across studies, resulting in greater comparability and the much-needed ability to pool study results.


childhood tuberculosis; tuberculosis case definitions; tuberculosis classification; tuberculosis diagnosis

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center