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Eukaryot Cell. 2015 Dec;14(12):1154-64. doi: 10.1128/EC.00137-15. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1.

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Institute of Integrative Sciences and Health and Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon, India Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.


In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms.

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