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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2015;78(18):1181-8. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2015.1083519. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

High Levels of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in Brazilian Thermal Paper Receipts and Estimation of Daily Exposure.

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a Laboratório de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto , Universidade de São Paulo, Monte Alegre , Ribeirão Preto , São Paulo , Brazil.
b Department of Chemistry , University of Central Florida , Orlando , Florida , USA.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor commonly employed as a color developer in thermal papers. Consequently, BPA derived from thermal papers has been considered an important source of exposure for humans, since this chemical may migrate from paper to skin upon contact. Further, due to recent restrictions on BPA use in some countries, it has been replaced by a new analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). The aim of the present study was to determine levels of BPA and BPS in 190 different thermal receipts, randomly collected from different locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, including receipts from supermarkets, general and fast-food restaurants, gas stations, bus and airplane tickets, and credit card and bank accounts. BPA and/or BPS were detected in 98% of samples at concentrations ranging from below the quantification limit to 4.3% (mg/100 mg paper). The obtained values were higher than amounts previously reported in other countries. The estimated daily intake through dermal absorption from handling of thermal receipt papers was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of handling of papers by humans in both the general population and occupationally exposed individuals. Fifth percentile, median, and 95th percentile daily intakes by the general population were 0.44, 1.42, and 2 μg/d, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for occupationally exposed population are 21.8, 71 and 101 μg/d. The potential adverse consequences of elevated occupational exposure are currently being examined.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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