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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Oct;54(10):832-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2015.07.006. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Subthreshold depression and regional brain volumes in young community adolescents.

Author information

1
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), UMR 1000, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry Research Unit, Orsay, University Paris-Sud, Orsay, and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France.
2
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), UMR 1000, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry Research Unit, Orsay, University Paris-Sud, Orsay, and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France; Orsay Hospital, France.
3
Psychosocial Services Adolescent Outpatient Clinic Kauppakatu 14, Lahti, Finland.
4
Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Germany.
5
Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
6
Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
7
King's College London Institute of Psychiatry, London.
8
Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Germany.
9
King's College London Institute of Psychiatry, London; Université de Montréal, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Canada.
10
Neurospin, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Paris.
11
Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
12
Campus CharitéMitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin.
13
Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.
14
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
15
Physikalisch-TechnischeBundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig und Berlin, Berlin.
16
School of Psychology, University of Nottingham.
17
Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto.
18
The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto.
19
Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
20
Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
21
King's College London Institute of Psychiatry, London; MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP) Centre, London.
22
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), UMR 1000, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry Research Unit, Orsay, University Paris-Sud, Orsay, and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Maison de Solenn, Cochin Hospital, Paris. Electronic address: ml.paillere@cch.aphp.fr.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Neuroimaging findings have been reported in regions of the brain associated with emotion in both adults and adolescents with depression, but few studies have investigated whether such brain alterations can be detected in adolescents with subthreshold depression, a condition at risk for major depressive disorder. In this study, we searched for differences in brain structure at age 14 years in adolescents with subthreshold depression and their relation to depression at age 16 years.

METHOD:

High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adolescents with self-reported subthreshold depression (n = 119) and healthy control adolescents (n = 461), all recruited from a community-based sample. Regional gray and white matter volumes were compared across groups using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. The relationship between subthreshold depression at baseline and depression outcome was explored using causal mediation analyses to search for mediating effects of regional brain volumes.

RESULTS:

Adolescents with subthreshold depression had smaller gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal and rostral anterior cingulate cortices and caudates, and smaller white matter volumes in the anterior limb of internal capsules, left forceps minor, and right cingulum. In girls, but not in boys, the relation between subthreshold depression at baseline and high depression score at follow-up was mediated by medial-prefrontal gray matter volume.

CONCLUSION:

Subthreshold depression in early adolescence might be associated with smaller gray and white matter volumes in regions of the frontal-striatal-limbic affective circuit, and the occurrence of depression in girls with subthreshold depression might be influenced by medial-prefrontal gray matter volume. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because of the limitations of the clinical assessment methods.

KEYWORDS:

MRI; gray matter; subthreshold depression; white matter

PMID:
26407493
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaac.2015.07.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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