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PLoS One. 2015 Sep 25;10(9):e0138978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138978. eCollection 2015.

Cytokine Concentrations in Plasma from Children with Severe and Non-Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
2
Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
3
Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Dept. of Clinical Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
4
University hospital of Northern Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
5
Department of Child Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
6
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Children in low and middle-income countries have a high burden of pneumonia. Measuring the cytokine responses may be useful to identify novel markers for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating pneumonia.

OBJECTIVE:

To describe and compare a wide range of inflammatory mediators in plasma from children with WHO-defined severe and non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP), and explore to what extent certain mediators are associated with severity and viral detection.

METHODS:

We collected blood samples from 430 children with severe (n = 43) and non-severe (n = 387) CAP. Plasma from these children were analysed for 27 different cytokines, and we measured the association with age, disease severity and viral detection.

RESULTS:

There were generally higher plasma concentrations of several cytokines with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects among children with severe CAP than in children with non-severe CAP. We found significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-15, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the group of severe CAP. Most of these associations persisted when adjusting for age in linear regression analyses. The cytokine response was strongly associated with age but to a lesser extent with viral etiology.

CONCLUSION:

The plasma concentrations of several cytokines, both with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, were higher among children with severe illness. In particular G-CSF and IL-6 reflected severity and might provide complementary information on the severity of the infection.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00148733.

PMID:
26407163
PMCID:
PMC4583304
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0138978
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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