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PLoS One. 2015 Sep 25;10(9):e0138676. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138676. eCollection 2015.

Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths University of London, London, United Kingdom.
2
King's College London, MRC Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence.

METHODS:

We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term) and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582).

RESULTS:

Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035) but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41). Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02) nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

PMID:
26406251
PMCID:
PMC4583278
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0138676
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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