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J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;47(4):889-99. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150333.

Coffee Consumption Habits and the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

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Geriatric Medicine-Memory Unit, Rare Disease Centre, Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
Neurodegenerative Disease Unit, Department of Basic Medicine, Neuroscience, and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
Department of Clinical Research in Neurology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, "Pia Fondazione Cardinale G. Panico", Tricase, Lecce, Italy.
Geriatric Unit & Laboratory of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy.
Department of Research and Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Parma, Italy.
Population Health and Health Determinants Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion (CNESPS), Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Roma, Italy.
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Institute for Digestive Diseases, IRCCS "Saverio de Bellis", Castellana, Bari, Italy.
Trials Centre, National Institute for Digestive Diseases, IRCCS "Saverio de Bellis", Castellana, Bari, Italy.
Institute of Neuroscience, Italian National Research Council (CNR), Firenze, Italy.
Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy.
Geriatrics Unit, Department of OrthoGeriatrics, Rehabilitation and Stabilization, Frailty Area, Galliera Hospital NR-HS, Genova, Italy.


Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to ±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (<1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.08). Finally, there was no significant association between subjects with higher levels of coffee consumption (>2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI.


Alzheimer’s disease; caffeine use; coffee consumption; dementia; mild cognitive impairment

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