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Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Summer;9(3):1-8.

Non-Parenteral Medications for Procedural Sedation in Children- A Narrative: Review Article.

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Pediatric Neurologist, Department of Pediatrics, Growth Disorders of Children Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Subspecialty in Pediatric Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Pediatric Nephrologist, Department of Pediatrics, Ali-ebn- Abitaleb School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd, Iran.


Procedural sedation may be needed in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. To make pediatric procedural sedation as safe as possible, protocols should be developed by institutions. Response to sedation in children is highly variable, while some become deeply sedated after minimal doses, others may need much higher doses. Child developmental status, clinical circumstances and condition of patient should be considered and then pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for sedation be selected. Drug of choice and administration route depend on the condition of the child, type of procedure, and predicted pain degree. The drugs might be administered parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) or non parenteral including oral, rectal, sublingual, aerosolized buccal and intranasal. The use of intravenous medication such propofol, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, or etomidate may be restricted in use by pediatric anesthesiologist or pediatric critical care specialists or pediatric emergency medicine specialists. In this review article we discuss on non-parenteral medications that can be used by non- anesthesiologist.


Children; Non-parenteral medications; Procedural sedation; Sedation


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