Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016 Jan;116(1):217-25. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3260-3. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Individuality of breathing during volitional moderate hyperventilation.

Author information

Department of Human Physiology and Biophysics, State Medical and Pharmaceutical University "Nicolae Testemitanu", Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.
UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525/BCM Team, 38041, Grenoble, France.
UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525/PRETA Team, 38041, Grenoble, France.
UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525/PRETA Team, 38041, Grenoble, France.



The aim of this study is to investigate the individuality of airflow shapes during volitional hyperventilation.


Ventilation was recorded on 18 healthy subjects following two protocols: (1) spontaneous breathing (SP1) followed by a volitional hyperventilation at each subject's spontaneous (HVSP) breathing rate, (2) spontaneous breathing (SP2) followed by hyperventilation at 20/min (HV20). HVSP and HV20 were performed at the same level of hypocapnia: end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) was maintained at 1% below the spontaneous level. At each breath, the tidal volume (VT), the breath (TTOT), the inspiratory (TI) and expiratory durations, the minute ventilation, VT/TI, TI/TTOT and the airflow shape were quantified by harmonic analysis. Under different conditions of breathing, we test if the airflow profiles of the same individual are more similar than airflow profiles between individuals.


Minute ventilation was not significantly different between SP1 (6.71 ± 1.64 l·min(-1)) and SP2 (6.57 ± 1.31 l·min(-1)) nor between HVSP (15.88 ± 4.92 l·min(-1)) and HV20 (15.87 ± 4.16 l·min(-1)). Similar results were obtained for FETCO2 between SP1 (5.06 ± 0.54 %) and SP2 (5.00 ± 0.51%), and HVSP (4.07 ± 0.51%) and HV20 (3.88 ± 0.42%). Only TI/TTOT remained unchanged in all four conditions. Airflow shapes were similar when comparing SP1-SP2, HVSP-HV20, and SP1-HVSP but not similar when comparing SP2-HV20.


These results suggest the existence of an individuality of airflow shape during volitional hyperventilation. We conclude that volitional ventilation alike automatic breathing follows inherent properties of the ventilatory system. Registered by Pascale Calabrese on, # NCT01881945.


Breathing pattern; Healthy subjects; Individuality; Volitional hyperventilation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center