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Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2015;66(3):269-74.

Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy as a possible factor of breast cancer.

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Department of Human Nutrition, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Ultrasound Outpatient Clinic, Chrenová Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Department of Human Nutrition, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.



Breast cancer is a disease with an increasing incidence, and it originates from several factors. Risk factors of this disease represent a diverse group of parameters, which also include hormonal influences.


The aim of the present study was to determine if there is a relationship between hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy in patients with diagnosed most common types of breast cancer taking into account the age at which the disease was diagnosed in selected sonographic clinic in the district of Nitra, Slovak Republic.


As a part of an ongoing retrospective study from 2005, a cohort of 300 randomly selected patients aged 25-87 years with diagnosed breast cancer have been monitored in 2012. The age at which breast cancer was diagnosed, and relationship to hormone therapy were analysed based on medical documentation.


Among 300 randomly selected patients with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer the group at the age of 40-59 was the most numerous (mean age was 53.06±11.25 years). The mean age of 45 patients who were given hormonal con- traceptives (HC) was 46.44±7.34 years, whereas the mean age of 82 patients who were subjected to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was 53.63±6.67 years. In women who took hormonal treatment, breast cancer was diagnosed at the mean age of 50.60±7.56 years, while women who never took HRT or HC, were diagnosed around the age of 53.92±12.35 years. The most common types of cancer were the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma. From all patients, the relapse occurred among 14 of them, about 4.86 years later. Only 2 patients had breast cancer on both diagnosed breast. After a surgery, the cancer was observed in 7 patients. The positive family history was confirmed with 34 patients.


Nowadays, the breast cancer treatment, especially at early stages, is successful, however, the malignant breast neoplasm remains the most common oncological disease causing the death amongst women. In the assessment of the impact of HC and HRT on breast cancer, it is not possible to provide a clear conclusion, because their influence on the tumour is difficult to verify.

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