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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Dec;24(12):1820-8. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0601. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Vitamin D, Inflammation, and Colorectal Cancer Progression: A Review of Mechanistic Studies and Future Directions for Epidemiological Studies.

Author information

  • 1Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
  • 2Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Clinical Chemistry and Haematology Laboratory, Gelderse Vallei Hospital, Ede, the Netherlands.
  • 3Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Department for Health Science, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • 4Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Franzel.vanduijnhoven@wur.nl.

Abstract

Survival from colorectal cancer is positively associated with vitamin D status. However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Inflammatory processes may link vitamin D to colorectal cancer survival, and therefore investigating inflammatory markers as potential mediators may be a valuable next step. This review starts with an overview of inflammatory processes suggested to be involved in colorectal cancer progression and regulated by vitamin D. Next, we provide recommendations on how to study inflammatory markers in future epidemiologic studies on vitamin D and colorectal cancer survival. Mechanistic studies have shown that calcitriol-active form of vitamin D-influences inflammatory processes involved in cancer progression, including the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2, the NF-κB pathway, and the expression of the cytokines TNFα, IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL17, and TGFβ1. Based on this and taking into account methodologic issues, we recommend to include analysis of specific soluble peptides and proteins, such as cytokines, in future epidemiologic studies on this issue. Vitamin D and the markers should preferably be measured at multiple time points during disease progression or recovery and analyzed using mediation analysis. Including these markers in epidemiologic studies may help answer whether inflammation mediates a causal relationship between vitamin D and colorectal cancer survival.

PMID:
26396142
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0601
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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