Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Dec;26(12):1458-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.07.012. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: rrholt@ucdavis.edu.
2
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA, 95616, USA.
3
Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Sanford Research/USD 2301 E 60th St N, Sioux Falls SD 57104; Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 1400 West 22nd Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57105; Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park PA, 16802, USA.
4
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA, 95616, USA; United States Department of Agriculture, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 430 West Health Sciences Drive, Davis CA, 95616, USA.
5
Department of Urology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y. Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento CA, 95817, USA.
6
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis CA, 95616, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4150 V. Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento CA, 95817, USA.

Abstract

Improved vascular function after the incorporation of walnuts into controlled or high-fat diets has been reported; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect of walnuts is(are) poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and short-term effects of walnut intake on changes in microvascular function and the relationship of these effects to plasma epoxides, the cytochrome-P450-derived metabolites of fatty acids. Thirty-eight hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women were randomized to 4 weeks of 5 g or 40 g of daily walnut intake. All outcomes were measured after an overnight fast and 4 h after walnut intake. Microvascular function, assessed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was the primary outcome measure, with serum lipids and plasma epoxides as secondary measures. Compared to 5 g of daily walnut intake, consuming 40 g/d of walnuts for 4 weeks increased the RHI and Framingham RHI. Total cholesterol and low- and high-density cholesterol did not significantly change after walnut intake. The change in RHI after 4 weeks of walnut intake was associated with the change in the sum of plasma epoxides (r=0.65, P=.002) but not with the change in the sum of plasma hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Of the individual plasma epoxides, arachidonic-acid-derived 14(15)-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid was most strongly associated with the change in microvascular function (r=0.72, P<.001). These data support the concept that the intake of walnut-derived fatty acids can favorably affect plasma epoxide production, resulting in improved microvascular function.

KEYWORDS:

Linoleic acid; Oxylipin; Vascular function; Walnuts; alpha-Linolenic acid

PMID:
26396054
DOI:
10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.07.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center