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Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Oct;40(10):980-9. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0403. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

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a Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.
b STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.
c Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec (CRIUCPQ), Quebec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.
d Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.


The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.


appetite; appétit; fermented milk products; ghrelin; ghréline; milk proteins; obesity; obésité; produits laitiers fermentés; protéines laitières; satiety; satiété

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