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Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Sep 18;16(9):22636-61. doi: 10.3390/ijms160922636.

ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance.

Author information

1
Norwegian College of Fishery Science Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. hanne.maehre@uit.no.
2
Norwegian College of Fishery Science Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. ida-johanne.jensen@uit.no.
3
Norwegian College of Fishery Science Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. edel.elvevoll@uit.no.
4
Norwegian College of Fishery Science Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. karl-erik.eilertsen@uit.no.

Abstract

ω-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have, since the 1970s, been associated with beneficial health effects. They are, however, prone to lipid peroxidation due to their many double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a process that may lead to increased oxidative stress, a condition associated with adverse health effects. Recently, conflicting evidence regarding the health benefits of intake of n-3 from seafood or n-3 supplements has emerged. The aim of this review was thus to examine recent literature regarding health aspects of n-3 FA intake from fish or n-3 supplements, and to discuss possible reasons for the conflicting findings. There is a broad consensus that fish and seafood are the optimal sources of n-3 FA and consumption of approximately 2-3 servings per week is recommended. The scientific evidence of benefits from n-3 supplementation has diminished over time, probably due to a general increase in seafood consumption and better pharmacological intervention and acute treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular diseases; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA); lipid peroxidation; n-3 fatty acids; seafood; supplements

PMID:
26393581
PMCID:
PMC4613328
DOI:
10.3390/ijms160922636
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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