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ACS Nano. 2015 Oct 27;9(10):10142-57. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.5b03763. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

High-Performance Capacitive Deionization Disinfection of Water with Graphene Oxide-graft-Quaternized Chitosan Nanohybrid Electrode Coating.

Author information

1
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University , Singapore 637459.
2
Centre for Antimicrobial Bioengineering, Nanyang Technological University , Singapore 637459.
3
Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an 710049, China.
4
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University , Singapore 308232.
5
Food Process Engineering Laboratory, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University , Wageningen 6708 WG, The Netherlands.
6
Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University , Singapore 637551.
7
School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University , Singapore 637551.

Abstract

Water disinfection materials should ideally be broad-spectrum-active, nonleachable, and noncontaminating to the liquid needing sterilization. Herein, we demonstrate a high-performance capacitive deionization disinfection (CDID) electrode made by coating an activated carbon (AC) electrode with cationic nanohybrids of graphene oxide-graft-quaternized chitosan (GO-QC). Our GO-QC/AC CDID electrode can achieve at least 99.9999% killing (i.e., 6 log reduction) of Escherichia coli in water flowing continuously through the CDID cell. Without the GO-QC coating, the AC electrode alone cannot kill the bacteria and adsorbs a much smaller fraction (<82.8 ± 1.8%) of E. coli from the same biocontaminated water. Our CDID process consists of alternating cycles of water disinfection followed by electrode regeneration, each a few minutes duration, so that this water disinfection process can be continuous and it only needs a small electrode voltage (2 V). With a typical brackish water biocontamination (with 10(4) CFU mL(-1) bacteria), the GO-QC/AC electrodes can kill 99.99% of the E. coli in water for 5 h. The disinfecting GO-QC is securely attached on the AC electrode surface, so that it is noncontaminating to water, unlike many other chemicals used today. The GO-QC nanohybrids have excellent intrinsic antimicrobial properties in suspension form. Further, the GO component contributes toward the needed surface conductivity of the CDID electrode. This CDID process offers an economical method toward ultrafast, contaminant-free, and continuous killing of bacteria in biocontaminated water. The proposed strategy introduces a green in situ disinfectant approach for water purification.

KEYWORDS:

antimicrobial; capacitive deionization; cationic; contact-active; graphene oxide; quaternary chitosan; water disinfection

PMID:
26389519
DOI:
10.1021/acsnano.5b03763
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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