Send to

Choose Destination
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Jan;71(1):85-91. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv282. Epub 2015 Sep 19.

NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Poland, 2012-14: inter-regional outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 and sporadic cases.

Author information

Department of Molecular Microbiology & National Reference Centre for Susceptibility Testing, National Medicines Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
Central Microbiology Laboratory, H. Święcicki Clinical Hospital at the Medical University in Poznań, Poznań, Poland.
ALAB Laboratories, Poznań, Poland.
Department of Laboratory and Microbiological Diagnostics, Voivodship Hospital, Poznań, Poland.
Infection Control Team, University Hospital of Lord's Transfiguration, Poznań, Poland.
Department of Microbiology, Public Central Teaching Hospital, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Department of Molecular Microbiology & National Reference Centre for Susceptibility Testing, National Medicines Institute, Warsaw, Poland



The objective of this study was to characterize New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates reported in Poland in 2012-14.


Representative isolates were typed by PFGE and MLST. NDM and other β-lactamase genes were amplified and sequenced. Plasmids with blaNDM genes were analysed by nuclease S1 plus hybridization profiling, by transfer assays and by PCR-based replicon typing. The blaNDM genetic context was studied by PCR mapping assays.


Of 374 cases of infection/colonization with NDM-positive Enterobacteriaceae identified in 2012-14, 370 cases in 40 hospitals, 10 outpatient clinics and 1 nursing home were associated with a Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak with epicentres in Poznań and Warsaw. The outbreak strain of K. pneumoniae ST11 was similar to an isolate from the Czech Republic from 2013. Like the Czech strain, many of the isolates had two blaNDM-1-carrying IncFII- and IncR-type plasmids of variable size, sharing a blaNDM-1-containing segment. The early isolates also produced CTX-M-15 co-encoded by the IncR-type plasmids, and differentiated later by extensive plasmid rearrangements. Four other NDM cases were reported in 2013, three being associated with arrivals from Montenegro, India or Afghanistan. The Indian Escherichia coli ST448 NDM-5 isolate revealed similarity to a recent isolate from Spain, including the blaNDM genetic context observed previously in E. coli strains in Poland and France (of Congolese and Indian origins, respectively). The Afghani Proteus mirabilis was the second isolate of this species with a chromosomal blaNDM-1 location.


The largest NDM outbreak in a non-endemic country has been observed, being an alarming phenomenon in resistance epidemiology in Poland.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center