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Br J Nutr. 2015 Nov 28;114(10):1647-55. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515003372. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

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1Department of Nutrition,Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science,University of Copenhagen,Denmark,Rolighedsvej 26,1958 Frederiksberg C,Denmark.
3Division of Nutrition,The National Food Institute,Technical University of Denmark,Mørkhøj Bygade 19,2860 Søborg,Denmark.
4Department of Clinical Biochemistry,Section of Molecular Diagnostics,Aalborg University Hospital,Hobrovej 18-22,9000 Aalborg,Denmark.


Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical activity behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as the impact of fat mass and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and measured blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by 7 d accelerometry during August-November. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Each 10 mmol/l 25(OH)D increase was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (-0·3 mmHg, 95 % CI -0·6, -0·0) (P=0·02), total cholesterol (-0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·05), LDL-cholesterol (-0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·08, -0·03), TAG (-0·02 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·03, -0·01) (P≤0·001 for all lipids) and lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) score (P=0·01). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations, but the association with blood pressure became borderline significant after adjustment for physical activity (P=0·06). In conclusion, vitamin D status was negatively associated with blood pressure, plasma lipids and a MetS score in Danish school children with low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and apart from blood pressure the associations were independent of body fat and physical activity. The potential underlying cause-effect relationship and possible long-term implications should be investigated in randomised controlled trials.


25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Cardiometabolic health; Children; FMI fat mass index; HOMA-IR homoeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance; MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MetS metabolic syndrome; PTH parathyroid hormone; Vitamin D

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