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World J Nephrol. 2015 Sep 6;4(4):444-54. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i4.444.

Pediatric primary urolithiasis: Symptoms, medical management and prevention strategies.

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Maria Goretti Moreira GuimarĂ£es Penido, Marcelo de Sousa Tavares, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 30130100, Brazil.


In the past few decades pediatric urolithiasis has become more frequent. The reason for this increase is not completely clear but has been attributed to changes in climate, nutritional habits and possibly other environmental factors. Although less frequent than adult stone disease, urolithiasis in the pediatric age group is also related to significant morbidity, particularly since stones tend to recur, and, thus, should not be underestimated. Most children with idiopathic stone disease have an underlying metabolic abnormality substantiating the importance of metabolic evaluation already following initial diagnosis of urolithiasis. Identification of the metabolic abnormality allows for more specific prescription of non pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at preventing recurrent stone formation. A better understanding of the causes of kidney stone disease will provide better strategies for stone prevention in children.


Cystinuria; Hypercalciuria; Hyperoxaluria; Prevention; Treatment; Urolithiasis

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