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Mar Drugs. 2015 Sep 11;13(9):5750-66. doi: 10.3390/md13095750.

Astaxanthin as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent for Neurological Diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China. haijwu@sina.com.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China. huanjiangniu@163.com.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, China. awshao@sina.com.
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China. chengwusy@sina.com.
5
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.. Bjdixon@llu.edu.
6
Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, China. zjmvip135@sina.com.
7
Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China. yangsxsy@163.com.
8
Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China. srrsyrwang@sina.com.

Abstract

Neurological diseases, which consist of acute injuries and chronic neurodegeneration, are the leading causes of human death and disability. However, the pathophysiology of these diseases have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments are still lacking. Astaxanthin, a member of the xanthophyll group, is a red-orange carotenoid with unique cell membrane actions and diverse biological activities. More importantly, there is evidence demonstrating that astaxanthin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of acute injuries, chronic neurodegenerative disorders, and neurological diseases. The beneficial effects of astaxanthin are linked to its oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic characteristics. In this review, we will focus on the neuroprotective properties of astaxanthin and explore the underlying mechanisms in the setting of neurological diseases.

KEYWORDS:

apoptosis; astaxanthin; inflammation; neurological diseases; neuroprotection; oxidative stress

PMID:
26378548
PMCID:
PMC4584352
DOI:
10.3390/md13095750
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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