Send to

Choose Destination
Sensors (Basel). 2015 Sep 11;15(9):23020-49. doi: 10.3390/s150923020.

Optimization and Control of Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems.

Author information

Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 256 Avery Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA.
Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of tightly-integrated computation, communication and physical elements. Medical devices, buildings, mobile devices, robots, transportation and energy systems can benefit from CPS co-design and optimization techniques. Cyber-physical vehicle systems (CPVSs) are rapidly advancing due to progress in real-time computing, control and artificial intelligence. Multidisciplinary or multi-objective design optimization maximizes CPS efficiency, capability and safety, while online regulation enables the vehicle to be responsive to disturbances, modeling errors and uncertainties. CPVS optimization occurs at design-time and at run-time. This paper surveys the run-time cooperative optimization or co-optimization of cyber and physical systems, which have historically been considered separately. A run-time CPVS is also cooperatively regulated or co-regulated when cyber and physical resources are utilized in a manner that is responsive to both cyber and physical system requirements. This paper surveys research that considers both cyber and physical resources in co-optimization and co-regulation schemes with applications to mobile robotic and vehicle systems. Time-varying sampling patterns, sensor scheduling, anytime control, feedback scheduling, task and motion planning and resource sharing are examined.


control; cyber-physical systems; optimal control; optimization; real-time control; robotics

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center