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Malar J. 2015 Sep 17;14:351. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0883-0.

Treatment of livestock with systemic insecticides for control of Anopheles arabiensis in western Kenya.

Author information

1
Genesis Laboratories, P.O. Box 1195, Wellington, CO, 80549, USA. richard@genesislabs.com.
2
Genesis Laboratories, P.O. Box 1195, Wellington, CO, 80549, USA. dylanburruss@gmail.com.
3
Genesis Laboratories, P.O. Box 1195, Wellington, CO, 80549, USA. larisap@genesislabs.com.
4
Genesis Laboratories, P.O. Box 1195, Wellington, CO, 80549, USA. davidp@genesislabs.com.
5
Genesis Laboratories, P.O. Box 1195, Wellington, CO, 80549, USA. rajesh@genesislabs.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite the implementation of vector control strategies, including insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in western Kenya, this area still experiences high level of malaria transmission. Novel vector control tools are required which target such vector species, such as Anopheles arabiensis, that feed outdoors and have minimal contact with ITNs and IRS.

METHODS:

To address this need, ivermectin, eprinomectin, and fipronil were evaluated in Zebu cattle under semi-field conditions to evaluate the potential of these compounds to reduce the survival of blood feeding An. arabiensis. Over the course of four experiments, lactating cattle received doses of oral ivermectin at 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg, oral eprinomectin at 0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg, topical eprinomectin at 0.5, 0.75, or 1.5 mg/kg, or oral fipronil at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/kg. On days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days post-treatment, cattle were exposed to An. arabiensis, and mosquito mortality post-blood feeding was monitored. For the analysis of survival data, the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Mantel-Haenszel test was used to contrast the treatment and control survival functions.

RESULTS:

All three compounds significantly reduced the survival time of An. arabiensis. Twenty-one days post-treatment, mortality of mosquitoes fed on cattle dosed orally with 0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg eprinomectin, topically with eprinomectin at 0.5 mg/kg, or orally with either 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg fipronil was still significantly higher than control mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data demonstrate the effectiveness of three insecticidal compounds administered systemically to cattle for controlling the cattle-feeding mosquito An. arabiensis. Eprinomectin and fipronil provided the longest-lasting control. Such endectocidal treatments in cattle are a promising new strategy for control of residual, outdoor malaria transmission and could effectively augment current interventions which target more endophilic vector species.

PMID:
26377691
PMCID:
PMC4574316
DOI:
10.1186/s12936-015-0883-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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