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Pediatr Cardiol. 2016 Jan;37(1):192-200. doi: 10.1007/s00246-015-1265-7. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

High Overweight and Obesity in Fontan Patients: A 20-Year History.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. chungst@niddk.nih.gov.
2
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Disorders and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH, 10 Center Dr. Bld 10-CRC, RM 5-5740, MSC 1612, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1612, USA. chungst@niddk.nih.gov.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
4
Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA.
5
Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Abstract

The prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors with complex congenital heart disease may be increasing, and little is known about the timing and onset of weight gain and growth patterns in these high-risk patients. Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) with age were determined in 606 patients with Fontan circulation seen at a tertiary care cardiology center from 1992 to 2012. The number of clinic encounters (n) was stratified by age group (n = 401, 2-5 years; n = 333, 6-11 years; n = 217, 12-19 years; and n = 129, >20 years). Among adults, 39% were overweight/obese at last clinic visit; 22% overweight, and 17% obese. Childhood anthropometric data were available for 82 adults, of which 15% (n = 12/82) were overweight/obese in childhood. The likelihood of being overweight/obese as an adult was three times higher if there was a BMI ≥ 85th percentile in childhood (CI 2.1-4.5, P < 0.01). Overweight/obesity in adulthood was associated with lower heart failure rates (4 vs. 19%, P = 0.03). Pediatric rates of overweight/obesity were comparable to national data (NHANES 2011-2012) in every age group: at 2-5 years, (25 vs. 23%), 6-11 years (26 vs. 34%), and 12-19 years (15 vs. 35%). Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight/obese children as young as 2-5 years of age. Childhood and adult survivors with Fontan circulation have high rates of overweight/obesity. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of future adiposity and is linked to changes in systolic blood pressure at a very young age.

KEYWORDS:

Congenital; Fontan procedure; Growth; Heart defect; Obesity; Pediatrics

PMID:
26377100
PMCID:
PMC6260821
DOI:
10.1007/s00246-015-1265-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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