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J Periodontol. 2016 Feb;87(2):e9-17. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.150330. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Obesity and Hyperlipidemia Modulate Alveolar Bone Loss in Wistar Rats.

Author information

1
Department of Periodontology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul.
3
Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, Brazil.
4
Laboratory of Metabolism and Comparative Endocrinology, Physiology Department, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A positive association between obesity-associated metabolic disorders (e.g., hyperlipidemia and diabetes) and periodontitis has been demonstrated in the literature. This study evaluates the role of cafeteria diet-induced obesity/hyperlipidemia (CAF) on alveolar bone loss (ABL) in rats.

METHODS:

Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: control, periodontitis (PERIO), obesity/hyperlipidemia (CAF), and obesity/hyperlipidemia plus periodontitis (CAF+PERIO). Groups CAF and CAF+PERIO were exposed to a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. At week 12, periodontal disease was induced in groups PERIO and CAF+PERIO by ligatures in the upper second molar. The contralateral tooth was considered the intragroup control. Body weight and Lee index were evaluated weekly during the experiment. Serum glucose and cholesterol/triglycerides in the liver were evaluated, and percentage of ABL was measured by microcomputed tomography. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at week 17.

RESULTS:

Body weight, Lee index, and cholesterol/triglycerides in the liver increased in groups exposed to the cafeteria diet. Groups PERIO and CAF+PERIO exhibited a significantly higher ABL compared to control and CAF groups. The presence of obesity and hyperlipidemia significantly increased ABL in the CAF+PERIO group compared to the PERIO group (53.60 ± 3.44 versus 42.78 ± 7.27, respectively) in the sides with ligature. Groups exposed to CAF exhibited higher ABL in the sides without ligature. No differences were observed among groups for IL-1β and TNF-α.

CONCLUSION:

Obesity and hyperlipidemia modulate the host response to challenges in the periodontium, increasing the expression of periodontal breakdown.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; hyperlipidemias; microcomputed tomography; obesity; periodontal diseases; rats

PMID:
26376945
DOI:
10.1902/jop.2015.150330
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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