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J Neurosci Methods. 2016 Feb 15;260:2-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.09.007. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures.

Author information

1
National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK. Electronic address: katie.lidster@nc3rs.org.uk.
2
Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, UK.
3
Institute of Neuropathology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
4
Neuroscience Division, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
5
Comparative Biology Centre, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
6
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
7
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
8
UCB Pharma, Brussels, Belgium.
9
Department of Neurobiology, Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
10
NC3Rs Board, Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK.
11
UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK.
12
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
13
Institute of Neuroscience, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
14
Department of Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Herts, UK.
15
Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
16
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
17
National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK.

Abstract

Animal models of epilepsy and seizures, mostly involving mice and rats, are used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of epilepsy and their comorbidities, to identify biomarkers, and to discover new antiepileptic drugs and treatments for comorbidities. Such models represent an important area for application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use). This report provides background information and recommendations aimed at minimising pain, suffering and distress in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures in order to improve animal welfare and optimise the quality of studies in this area. The report includes practical guidance on principles of choosing a model, induction procedures, in vivo recordings, perioperative care, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, social housing, environmental enrichment, reporting of studies and data sharing. In addition, some model-specific welfare considerations are discussed, and data gaps and areas for further research are identified. The guidance is based upon a systematic review of the scientific literature, survey of the international epilepsy research community, consultation with veterinarians and animal care and welfare officers, and the expert opinion and practical experience of the members of a Working Group convened by the United Kingdom's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).

KEYWORDS:

3Rs; Animal model; Epilepsy; Mouse; Rat; Refinement; Seizure

PMID:
26376175
DOI:
10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.09.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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