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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015 Oct;16(10):632-42. doi: 10.1038/nrn4003. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Tinnitus: perspectives from human neuroimaging.

Author information

Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular, Dr. Héctor N Torres, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina, and at the Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1121, Argentina.
Interdisciplinary Tinnitus Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany.
Unit of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.
Laboratory for Clinical and Integrative Neuroscience, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA.

Erratum in

  • Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015 Nov;16(11):700.


Tinnitus is the perception of phantom sound in the absence of a corresponding external source. It is a highly prevalent disorder, and most cases are caused by cochlear injury that leads to peripheral deafferentation, which results in adaptive changes in the CNS. In this article we critically assess the recent neuroimaging studies in individuals with tinnitus that suggest that the disorder is accompanied by functional and structural brain abnormalities in distributed auditory and non-auditory brain regions. Moreover, we consider how the identification of the neuronal mechanisms underlying the different forms of tinnitus would benefit from larger studies, replication and comprehensive clinical assessment of patients.

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