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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015 Nov-Dec;3(6):941-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

Progression of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Interstitial Lung Disease Accompanies Distinct Pulmonary and Laboratory Findings.

Author information

1
Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address: paul.maglione@mssm.edu.
2
Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
3
Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Common variable immunodeficiency may be complicated by interstitial lung disease, which leads to worsened morbidity and mortality in some. Although immunomodulatory treatment has efficacy, choice of patient, duration of treatment, and long-term follow-up are not available. Interstitial lung disease appears stable in certain instances, so it is not known whether all patients will develop progressive disease or require immunomodulatory therapy.

OBJECTIVE:

This study aims to determine if all common variable immunodeficiency patients with interstitial lung disease have physiological worsening, and if clinical and/or laboratory parameters may correlate with disease progression.

METHODS:

A retrospective review of medical records at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was conducted for referred patients with common variable immunodeficiency, CT scan-confirmed interstitial lung disease, and periodic pulmonary function testing covering 20 or more months before immunomodulatory therapy. Fifteen patients were identified from the retrospective review and included in this study.

RESULTS:

Of the 15 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 9 had physiological worsening of interstitial lung disease adapted from consensus guidelines, associated with significant reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Those with progressive lung disease also had significantly lower mean immunoglobulin G levels, greater increases and highest levels of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM), and more significant thrombocytopenia.

CONCLUSION:

Interstitial lung disease resulted in physiological worsening in many, but not all subjects, and was associated with suboptimal immunoglobulin G replacement. Those with worsening pulmonary function tests, elevated IgM, and severe thrombocytopenic episodes appear to be at highest risk for progressive disease. Such patients may benefit from immunomodulatory treatment.

KEYWORDS:

CVID; Common variable immunodeficiency; GLILD; Granulomatous interstitial lung disease; Interstitial lung disease; Pulmonary function testing

PMID:
26372540
PMCID:
PMC4641811
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaip.2015.07.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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