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Cancers (Basel). 2015 Sep 9;7(3):1815-46. doi: 10.3390/cancers7030864.

The Evolution of Therapies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Oncology, Monash Medical Centre, 823-865 Centre Road, East Bentleigh VIC 3165, Australia. vishal.boolell@monashhealth.org.au.
2
Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, 27-31 Wright Street, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia. vishal.boolell@monashhealth.org.au.
3
Department of Medical Oncology, Monash Medical Centre, 823-865 Centre Road, East Bentleigh VIC 3165, Australia. n.watkins@garvan.org.au.
4
Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, 27-31 Wright Street, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia. n.watkins@garvan.org.au.
5
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia. n.watkins@garvan.org.au.
6
UNSW Faculty of Medicine, St Vincent's Clinical School, 390 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia. n.watkins@garvan.org.au.
7
Department of Thoracic Medicine, St Vincent's Hospital, 390 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia:. n.watkins@garvan.org.au.

Abstract

The landscape of advanced non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) therapies has rapidly been evolving beyond chemotherapy over the last few years. The discovery of oncogenic driver mutations has led to new ways in classifying NSCLC as well as offered novel therapeutic targets for anticancer therapy. Targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements have successfully been targeted with appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Other driver mutations such as ROS, MET, RET, BRAF have also been investigated with targeted agents with some success in the early phase clinical setting. Novel strategies in the field of immune-oncology have also led to the development of inhibitors of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1), which are important pathways in allowing cancer cells to escape detection by the immune system. These inhibitors have been successfully tried in NSCLC and also now bring the exciting possibility of long term responses in advanced NSCLC. In this review recent data on novel targets and therapeutic strategies and their future prospects are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

PD-1 inhibitors; anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK); cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); immuno-oncology; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1); tyrosine kinase inhibitors

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