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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Oct 5;370(1679). pii: 20150031. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0031.

Activities and regulation of peptidoglycan synthases.

Author information

1
Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
2
Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, Bijvoet Centre for Biomolecular Research, University of Utrecht, Padualaan 8, 3584 Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK w.vollmer@ncl.ac.uk.

Abstract

Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component in the cell wall of nearly all bacteria, forming a continuous, mesh-like structure, called the sacculus, around the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from bursting by its turgor. Although PG synthases, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), have been studied for 70 years, useful in vitro assays for measuring their activities were established only recently, and these provided the first insights into the regulation of these enzymes. Here, we review the current knowledge on the glycosyltransferase and transpeptidase activities of PG synthases. We provide new data showing that the bifunctional PBP1A and PBP1B from Escherichia coli are active upon reconstitution into the membrane environment of proteoliposomes, and that these enzymes also exhibit DD-carboxypeptidase activity in certain conditions. Both novel features are relevant for their functioning within the cell. We also review recent data on the impact of protein-protein interactions and other factors on the activities of PBPs. As an example, we demonstrate a synergistic effect of multiple protein-protein interactions on the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1B, by its cognate lipoprotein activator LpoB and the essential cell division protein FtsN.

KEYWORDS:

carboxypeptidase; glycosyltransferase; lipid II; penicillin-binding protein; peptidoglycan; transpeptidase

PMID:
26370943
PMCID:
PMC4632607
DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2015.0031
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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