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Malar J. 2015 Sep 15;14:344. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0877-y.

Rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi: a major concern for malaria vector control.

Author information

1
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. jacob.riveron@lstmed.ac.uk.
2
Malaria Alert Centre, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi. mchiumia@mac.medcol.mw.
3
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. mbenji2@yahoo.fr.
4
Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale, PO Box 288, Yaoundé, Cameroon. mbenji2@yahoo.fr.
5
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. K.G.Barnes@liverpool.ac.uk.
6
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. helen.irving@lstmed.ac.uk.
7
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. sssadi79@liverpool.ac.uk.
8
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. Gareth.Weedall@lstmed.ac.uk.
9
Malaria Alert Centre, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi. tmzilahowa@mac.medcol.mw.
10
Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. charles.wondji@lstmed.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Deciphering the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for successful vector control. This study reports an increase of resistance intensity and a rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi leading to reduced bed net efficacy.

METHODS:

Anopheles funestus group mosquitoes were collected in southern Malawi and the species composition, Plasmodium infection rate, susceptibility to insecticides and molecular bases of the resistance were analysed.

RESULTS:

Mosquito collection revealed a predominance of An. funestus group mosquitoes with a high hybrid rate (12.2 %) suggesting extensive species hybridization. An. funestus sensu stricto was the main Plasmodium vector (4.8 % infection). Consistently high levels of resistance to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides were recorded and had increased between 2009 and 2014. Furthermore, the 2014 collection exhibited multiple insecticide resistance, notably to DDT, contrary to 2009. Increased pyrethroid resistance correlates with reduced efficacy of bed nets (<5 % mortality by Olyset(®) net), which can compromise control efforts. This change in resistance dynamics is mirrored by prevalent resistance mechanisms, firstly with increased over-expression of key pyrethroid resistance genes (CYP6Pa/b and CYP6M7) in 2014 and secondly, detection of the A296S-RDL dieldrin resistance mutation for the first time. However, the L119F-GSTe2 and kdr mutations were absent.

CONCLUSIONS:

Such increased resistance levels and rise of multiple resistance highlight the need to rapidly implement resistance management strategies to preserve the effectiveness of existing insecticide-based control interventions.

PMID:
26370361
PMCID:
PMC4570681
DOI:
10.1186/s12936-015-0877-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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