Send to

Choose Destination
J Affect Disord. 2015 Dec 1;188:239-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.052. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Longitudinal impact of a collaborative care model on employment outcomes in bipolar disorder.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:
Department of Health Management and Policy (School of Public Health) an Population Studies Center (Institute for Social Research), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; VA Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.



Few treatments are available to directly address employment or work functioning among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and currently available treatment models have not been evaluated to examine their impact employment outcomes. We examined impact of affective symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) on longitudinal employment outcomes in a community-based sample of individuals with bipolar disorder who completed the Life Goals-Collaborative Care (LG-CC) intervention.


Participants (N=178) were assessed based on HRQoL, employment status, affective symptoms (depressive/manic), and work hours at baseline, 6-, 12- and 24-months after initiation of LG-CC. Frequency of LG-CC sessions and number of care-manager contacts also were ascertained.


At baseline, 21% were employed, 29.5% were unemployed, and 49.6% were on disability. Improvement in affective symptoms was seen over the 24-month period, but not in HRQoL. Lower depression symptoms, but not mania, at baseline predicted greater likelihood of employment status in 24-months. Degree of LG-CC participation was associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming disabled/unemployed and increased number of hours worked in 24-months.


The study was originally designed to compare implementation strategies and not the effectiveness of LG-CC on employment outcomes. Further, it was unclear whether improvement in work functioning were personal goals of the participants of this study.


Fewer depressive symptoms were associated with positive employment outcomes over time. Collaborative Care Models that are already implemented by existing providers that focus on management of affective symptoms show promise in positively impacting employment outcomes.


Affective symptoms; Bipolar disorder; Care models; Employment; Longitudinal; Outcomes

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center